Productivity of potato at adaptation of the Dutch technology of cultivation on light grey forest soils of Nizhniy Novgorod region depending on processing systems
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Field experiment on studying of six various systems of processing of light grey forest soil for potato of variety Red Skarlett spent in Open Company "STACK" of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Fall basic processing of soil provided higher level of productivity in comparison with spring processing and processing in two traces with chizel cultivator in the spring. The variant with use of fall plowings with the subsequent re-ploughing in the spring provides the highest productivity - on the average for three years – 63.28 t/ha, in the best variant with use of spring ploughing 54.42 t/ha are received. Use of chisel cultivator in system of pre-sowing processing of soil on fall processing provided productivity of 60.85 t/ha. Use of chisel cultivator on fall processing in comparison with spring re-ploughing promotes decrease in productivity of potato. Use of chisel cultivator in system of pre-sowing processing on spring processing does not give any advantages in productivity in comparison with the direct milling of soil provided by the Dutch technology. Re-ploughing of soil during the spring period provides an increase on the average for three years of 6.55 t/ha; and use of chisel cultivator in the spring on fall-plowing processing – 4.12 t/ha in comparison with traditional Dutch technology with direct milling of soil in system of pre-sowing processing of soil. Biological activity of soil (a method of "applications") varied from 58.6 % in a variant where spring plowing is used as the basic processing of soil to 68.0 % in system of pre-sowing processing with chisel cultivator at re-ploughing of soil in autumn. The contamination in the beginning and the end of growth season in variants of study had no distinctions as the herbicidal screen showed the action during all period of growth. Distinctions in defeating of potato plants by phytophtorosis are not revealed owing to application of quadruple fungicide processings. In the beginning of the growth period soil density in all systems of soil processing did not differ significantly and was in limits of optimum values (0.85-0.90 g/sm3). By the end of growth season there was a soil consolidation (1.1-1.2 g/sm3), but significant distinctions between variants has not been revealed.
Keywords: potato, field experiment, autumn ploughing, spring ploughing, pre-sowing processing of soil, productivity, soil density, biological activity of soil, phytophtorosis, weed vegetation
1. Ivenin V.V. Sistema zemledeliya khozyaystva dolzhna postoyanno sovershenstvovat'sya. [System of arable farming must be modernizating continuously]. Resursy i technologii ratsional'nogo proizvodstva sel'skokhozyaystvennoy produktsii. Nizhny Novgorod: Nizhegorodsky regionalny institute upravleniya i ekonomiki APK, 2000. pp. 48-56.
2. Nartsissov V.P. Nauchnye osnovy sistem zemledeliya. [Scientifical basis of system of arable farming]. Мoscow: Kolos, 1982. 328 p.
3. Aleksandrova L.N. Organicheskoe veshchestvo pochvy i protsessy ego transformatsii. [Organic matter of soil and processes of its transformation]. leningrad: Nauka, 1980. 287 p.
4. Vorob'ev S.A., Burov D.I., Egorov V.E. Zemledelie [Arable farming]. Moscow: Kolos, 1972. 512 p.
5. Bazdyrev G.I. Zashchita sel'skokhozyay-stvennykh kul'tur ot sornykh rasteniy. [Protection of agricultural crops from weeds]. Мoscow: Kolos, 2004. 328 p.
6. Il'yasov M.M. Pochvenno-fizicheskie osnovy primeneniya resur-sosberegayushchikh sistem obrabotki pochvy. [Soil-and-physical basis of use of resource-saving systems of soil processing]. Effektivnost' primeneniya sredstv khimizatsii i resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii v sel'skom khozyaystve. Trudy TatNII agrokhimii i pochvo-vedeniya. Kazan', 2005. pp. 69-76.
7. Il'yasov M.M., Khramov I.T. Resursosberezhenie v sisteme obrabotki tyazhelosuglinistoy chernozemnoy pochvy v Respublike Tatarstan. [Resource-saving in system of tilling of hardloamy chernozem soil in Republic of Tatarstan]. Pochvovedenie i agrokhimiya. Minsk, 2005. no.1(34). pp. 100-104.
8. Zalenskiy V.L., Yarotskiy Ya.U. Obrabotka pochvy i plodorodie. [Soil tilling and fertility]. Glavnyy agronom, 2007. no. 8. p. 14.
9. Minikaev R.V., Mareev V.F., Manyukova I.G. Vliyanie dlitel'nogo primeneniya resursosberegayushchikh priemov obrabotki pochvy na vidovoy sostav sornykh rasteniy. [ВInfluence of long-term use of resource-saving methods of soil tilling on specia composition of weed plants]. Rol' pochvy v formirovanii estestvennykh i antropogennykh landshaftov. Mezhdunarodnaya konferenciya, posvyashchennaya 75-letiyu kafedry pochvovedeniya KGU. Kazan', 2003. pp. 390-392.