The efficiency of use of green manure in the Nizhny Novgorod region
Komarova N.А., senior researcher
Nizhny Novgorod Agricultural Research Institute, v. Selekciya, Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia
In recent years with changes in the structure of arable land, a sharp reduction in the application of organic fertilizers a problem is facing of optimizing the content of organic matter and nutrients in a soil. This problem in the current conditions must be solved with green manure crops providing overall influence on agronomically important soil properties. In Nizhny Novgorod Agricultural Research Institute located in moderately warm agro-climatic region on a light gray forest soil researches have been conducted to study the effects of different types of fallow on agrophysical soil properties, crop yields, grain quality, and productivity of short rotation in two settings on the two backgrounds of mineral nutrition Р90К90 and N60Р90К90. In the course of the research it was found that the perennial lupine by the time of plowing accumulated 57.7 t/ha, clover 48.2 t/ha of biomass or 13.9 and 12.1 t/ha of dry matter. Organic mass of green manure enriches the soil with nitrogen at ploughing respectively on 334 and 249 kg/ha; 150-200 kg/ha of this volume these crops absorb from the air. So a ploughing of green manure crops has a positive effect on soil density. On average over the three years of observations the density of a soil under spring wheat in a 0-10 cm layer was below on green manure (clover and lupine) fallows compared with bare fallow without manure by 0.11 and 0.10 g/cm3 (1.20; 1.21; 1.31 g/cm3 respectively). Enrichment of a soil with green manure fallows increased the yield of crop rotation. The increase of grain yield of spring wheat after clover and lupine fallows was 40-43%, of oats in aftereffect - 27-35% compared with bare fallow without manure and was in a level of manure fallow (40 t/ha). In the grain of spring wheat grown on a clover fallow content of protein was 15.56, on a lupine fallow – 15.62, and on bare fallow without manure – 14.31%, i.e. its quality improved. 1000 grains weight increased from 34.94 g on a bare fallow to 37.58 on lupine and 37.55 on the clover fallows. The use of clover fallows increased the productivity of crop rotation in 1.5-2 times. In general the use of green manure lupine and clover fallows contributed to softening of an upper soil layer (0-10 cm) under the following spring wheat; to replenishment of nitrogen and organic matter; increased the yields of crop rotation and improved grain quality. The input into crop rotation of green manure fallows with perennial legumes is highly efficient and the most economical technique of farming.
Keywords: crop rotation, green manure crops, density of soil, yield, productivity, energy effectiveness, grain quality
1. Dovban K.I. Zelenoe udobrenie [Green manure]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990. 208 p.
2. Dovban K.I. Primenenie zelenykh udobreniy v intensivnom zemledelii [The use of green fertilizers in intensive agriculture]. Minsk: Urozhaj, 1981. 206 p.
3. Suvorov V.V. Donnik [Melilot]. Selhozizdat, 1962. 182 p.
4. Kozlova L.M. Prioritetnye napravleniya v reshenii aktual'nykh problem zemledeliya Evro-Severo-Vostoka [Priority direction for decision of actual agricultural problems]. Aktual'nye problemy zemledeliya Evro-Severo-Vostoka RF. [Actual problems in agriculture of Euro-North-East of Russian Federation: collection of scientific transactions]. Nizhny Novgorod, 2013. pp. 6-14.
5. Rekomendatsii po vozdelyvaniyu sideral'nykh kul'tur v usloviyakh Kirovskoy oblasti [Recommendations on cultivation of green manure crops under conditions of Kirov region]. Ed. L.M. Kozlova. Kirov: North-East Agricultural Research Institute, 2014. 32 p.
6. Kul'tura lyupina v povyshenii plodorodiya pochv v Nechernozemnoy zone SSSR: Metodicheskie rekomendacii. [Culture of lupine in the improvement of soil fertility in the Non-Chernozem zone of the USSR: Methodical indications]. Moscow: Kolos, 1971. 32 p.
7. Mart'yanov S.P. Vliyanie mnogoletnikh trav i udobreniy na produktivnost' sevooborotov i agrokhimicheskie svojstva melkopodzolistykh pochv [Influence of perennial grasses and fertilizers on productivity of crop rotations and agro-chemical features of little-size podzolic soils]. Izmenenie i regulirovanie pochvennogo plodoro-diya v usloviyakh intensifikatsii zemledeliya [Change and regulation of soil fertility under conditions of intensification of agriculture]. V. 10. Perm, 1988. рp. 39-48.