Efficiency of a crop rotation and change of soil fertility depending on doses and ratios of mineral fertilizers
Artem'ev A.A., PhD in agriculture, associate professor, deputy director
Mordovian Agricultural Research Institute, Saransk, Russia
Change of agrochemical parameters of soil and yield of crops of the unit of field crop rotation: spring barley – oats – pure fallow – winter wheat depending on the doses and ratios of fertilizers was studied in field stationary experiment on leached Chernozem. The experimental scheme consisted of 16 variants where nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were added at the ratio: 000, 111, 220, 331, 202, 313, 022, 133, 333, 222, 113, 002, 131, 020, 311, and 200 (first digit is N, second – P2O5, third – K2O), where 0 – no fertilizer, 1, 2, 3 – single, double and triple dose. Doses of nitrogen in the experiment were: 1 – 45, 2 – 90, 3 – 135, phosphorus and potassium: 1 – 30, 2 – 60, 3 – 90 kg of acting matter/ha. It is found out that the average annual productivity of the studied crop was higher in variants with a triple dose of nitrogen fertilization (N135) and made 2.57…2.78 t of grain units/ha. The defining element in receiving of maximal yield of field cultures was nitrogen. With increase of its dose of application up to 135 kg of acting matter/ha productivity of plants and respectively general efficiency of a unit of crop rotation increased by 44…48%. The ratio of phosphorus and potassium in fertilizer didn't influence productivity of field cultures. Application of phosphoric and potash fertilizers by 60 and 90 kg of acting matter/ha in the unit of a field crop rotation didn't lead to decrease in K2O and P2O5 in soil arable horizon. Application of N135 irrespective on a ratio with phosphorus and potassium kept its concentration at the initial level.
Keywords: field crop rotation, efficiency, leached chernozem, mineral fertilizers, soil fertility
1. Artem'ev A.A. Vliyanie tekhnologiy primeneniya mineral'nykh udobreniy na produktivnost' polevogo sevooborota i izmenenie agrokhimicheskikh pokazateley pochvy. [Influence of technologies of mineral fertilizers use on efficiency of a field crop rotation and change of agrochemical parameters of soil]. Dostizheniya nauki tekhniki APK. 2014. no.6. pp.39-41.
2. Chetverikova N.S. Dinamika plodorodiya pakhotnykh chernozemov lesostepnoy zony TsChO. [Dynamics of fertility of arable chernozems in forest-steppe zone of Central Chernozem Region]. Dostizhenie nauki i tekhniki APK. 2014. no.2. pp.18-21.
3. Adaptivnye tekhnologii vozdelyvaniya sel'skokhozyaystvennykh kul'tur v usloviyakh Respubliki Mordoviya (metodicheskoe rukovodstvo). [Adaptive technologies of cultivation of crops under conditions of the Republic of Mordovia (the methodical guidance)]. Pod red. A.M. Gur'yanova. Saransk, 2003. 428 p.
4. Dospekhov B.A. Metodika polevogo opyta. [Methodic of a field experiment]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985. 351 p.
5. Metodika gosudarstvennogo sortoispytaniya sel'skokhozyaystvennykh kul'tur. [Technique of the state varietal test of crops]. First issue. Moscow, 1985. 124 p.
6. Metodika gosudarstvennogo sortoispytaniya sel'skokhozyaystvennykh kul'tur. [Technique of the state varietal test of crops]. Second issue. Moscow, 1989. 195 p.