The influence of tilling on parameters of soil fertility and productivity of unit of field crop rotation
Khvostov E.N., head of department of agronomy,
Artem'ev A.A., PhD in agriculture, associated professor, deputy director on scientific work,
Prokina L.N., PhD in agriculture, head of department of agrochemistry
Mordovian Agricultural Research Institute, Saransk, Russia
Effectiveness of tillage in a unit of field crop rotation: winter wheat – spring wheat – oats – barley is studied on the loamy leached Chernozem under conditions of unstable moistening of the South of non-Chernozem zone of the the. Variants of primary tillage consisted moldboard (PLN-4-35), boardless (KPG-250) and subsurface disking (BDM-3x4) tilling; presowing treatment was in two variants with aggregates IMT-616 (Europack) and KPS-4. On average over the study years, the lowest value of density of composition of arable layer was observed in the variants with moldboard plowing; at moldboard treatment and disking it was 10…11% higher (1.13 g/cm3). By the end of the growing season of field crops soil density increased on all variants of primary tillage. The use of different aggragates for presowing tilling is not affected this parameter. The most favourable humidity provided moldboard plowing. The use of no-till tillage reduced moisture content by 7…9%. Aggregates for presowing tilling had no significant effect on the accumulation of moisture in the soil. Weediness of crops in crop rotation unit depended largely on the methods of primary tillage. Mouldless tilling and disking increased the number of weeds on average from 24 to 37% compared to plowing. Using of aggregates for presowing tilling had not positive effect on weediness. Weediness in all variants with tillage decreased by 30…44% to harvesting time. However, the difference between the variants remained. Annual average productivity of unit of field crop rotation was higher in variants with mouldboard tilling and amounted 3.05…3.13 tons of grain units/ha. For mouldless tilling it was by 11% and disking – by 19 % lower.
Keywords: crop rotation, basic and presowing tilling, soil density, dockage of sowings, productivity
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