Analysis of a phytosanitary condition of sowings of spring grain crops in the Kirov region (Analytical review)
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Sheshegova T.K., DSc in biology, head of laboratory, head of scientific-methodical branch
North-East Agricultural Research Institute, Kirov, Russia, North-East Regional Agrarian Scientific Center, Kirov, Russia
Continuous monitoring of a phytosanitary condition of field biocenoses is one of important problems of agricultural science and industry in connection with the global and local climate change. During 1997-2014 the specific structure, frequency and a level of development of diseases on industrial sowings of a spring wheat, barley and oats in the Kirov region is analyzed. Annual manifestation of a septoria of an ear and leaves on sowings of wheat and net blotch on barley is revealed. Further on the frequency of occurrence there are root rot of barley (94.1%), loose smut (76.4%) and a brown rust (70.6%) of wheat, helminthosporiosis of barley and oats (52.9…58.8%) and covered smut of wheat (58.8%). Fusariosis and patina of ear, bacterioses of vegetative and generative organs are shown with a frequency from 29.4% to 47.0%. However the development of diseases exceeding the economic threshold of injuriousness is much rarer, except for a covered smut of wheat which existence in elite seed farming isn't allowed. During 17 years of phytosanitary monitoring strong development of a septoriosis was noted 13 times, a net blotch – 9 times; root rot of barley – 9 times in 16 years of their manifestation, of wheat and oats – 3 times in 6…7 years; a loose smut of wheat - 9 times in 13 years, of oats – 8 times in 9 years; a brown rust of wheat – 5 times in 12 years. Strong development of bacterioses, fusariosis and patina of ear is shown with a frequency from 1 to 3 time in 5…8 years. Epiphytotic-dangerous diseases must be under constant phytosanitary control and restriction of their injuriousness, including breeding methods, way of creation and manufacturing application of resistant varieties.
Keywords: phytosanitary monitoring, diseases of wheat, barley and oats, manifestation frequency, level of development of diseases
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