Influence of a fallow type on change of agrochemical parameters of soil fertility and productivity of crop rotation in the long experience
Vladykina N.I., PhD in agriculture, leading researcher
Udmurt State Agricultural Research Institute. Pervomajsky, Udmurtia, Russia
Researches were conducted under the conditions of the Udmurt Republic in the third rotation (2004-2012) of biologizing crop rotation with two fields of clover at 67% saturation with cereal crops. Types of fallow (pure fallow without organic, pure fallow with the introduction of manure 90 t/ha, seeded vetch-oats fallow) and mineral fertilizers (without fertilizer, fertilizer in dose N180R120K120 for crop rotation) have been studied. It was revealed that the agrochemical parameters of the arable layer of sod-podzolic medium-washed soil formed on the cover red-brown loams vary depending on the type of fallow. Seeded fallow contributed to more active acidification of the soil. Input of manure in the pure fallow supported stably the optimum acidity of sod-podzolic soil during the crop rotation, provided significant improvement of physic-chemical properties of the soil (pHKCl = 5.42, hydrolytic acidity = 2.44 and S = 11.2 mg / 100 g) and positive balance of all nutrients. In the seeded fallow in the variant with mineral fertilizers a deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and especially potassium was revealed; physic-chemical state of the soil has deteriorated (pHKCl = 5.07, hydrolytic acidity = 2.67 and S = 8.7 mmol / 100 g). Joint application of manure, mineral fertilizers and straw of all cereals (an average of 27 t/ha) with an additional nitrogen for its decomposition ensured productivity of crop rotation with pure fallow at level 3.30 tons of grain units/ha. In the seeded fallow (joint application of straw and mineral fertilizers) productivity was significantly lower - 3.02 tons of grain units /ha at LSD05 0.14. Introduction to the rotation of clover with two years of use guaranteed a reduction of soil acidity in these years. The high correlation between the agrochemical properties of soil and productivity of crop rotation (r = from 0.69 to 0.98) was fixed.
Keywords: crop rotation, fallow (pure, seeded), manure, mineral fertilizers, agrochemical parameters, balance, productivity, dependence
1. Vladykina N.I. Aktivnost' tsellyulozorazlagayushchikh mikroorganizmov dernovo-podzolistoy pochvy v sevooborote. [The activity of cellulolytic microorganisms of sod-podzolic soil in crop rotation]. Agrarnaya nauka Evro-Severo-Vostoka. 2014. no. 6 (43). pp. 32-37.
2. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po provedeniyu issledovaniy v dlitel'nykh opytakh s udobreniyami. [Methodological guidelines for conducting research on long-term experiments with fertilizers]. Moscow, 1986. 4.1. 148 p.
3. Poladich O.A. Vliyanie sroka obrabotki obraztsov na rezul'taty agrokhimicheskogo obsledovaniya pochv. [The influence of the period of sample processing onto the results of agrochemical soil survey]. Nauchnoe obespechenie strategii adaptivnoy intensifikatsii APK na Severo-Vostoke Nechernozemnoy zony Rossiyskoy Federatsii: mater. nauch.-prakt. konf. Ruem, 28-29 iyunya 2007 g. [Scientific support of the strategy of adaptive intensification of agribusiness in the North-East Non-chernozem zone of the Russian Federation: Proceedings of the conference. Ruem, the 28-29th of June, 2007]. Ruem, 2007. pp. 59-64.
4. Haynes R.J., Mokolobate M.S. Amelioration of Al toxicity and deficiency in acid soil by additions of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms in V. ved. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 2001. Vol. 59. pp. 47-63.
5. Okorkov V.V. Nekotorye puti povysheniya effektivnosti primeneniya udobreniy. [Some ways to improve the efficiency of fertilizer application]. Sovremennye naukoemkie tekhnologii, prilozhenie k zhurnalu. no.3. 2008. pp. 64-72.
6. Dzyuin A.G., Dzyuin G.P. Kaliynoe sostoyanie dernovo-podzolistoy suglinistoy pochvy v sevooborote. [Potash state of sod-podzolic loamy soil in crop rotation]. Sostoyanie i puti povysheniya effektivnosti agrokhimicheskikh issledovaniy v Severo-Vostochnom i Ural'skom regionakh: mater. region. soveshchaniya nauchnykh uchrezhdeniy – uchastnikov Geoseti Severo-Vostochnogo i Ural'skogo regionov (g. Perm', 3-5 iyulya 2013 g.). [State and ways of increasing of efficiency of agrochemical research in the North-East and Ural regions: materials of regional meeting of scientific institutions - participants of GeoNetwork of North-East and Ural regions (Perm, the 3-5th of July, 2013)]. Moscow, 2013. pp. 24-29.
7. Byulleten' Geoseti opytov s udobreniyami. Vypusk 12. Metodicheskie podkhody pri razrabotke parametrov kaliynogo rezhima pakhotnykh pochv. [Bulletin of the GeoNetwork experiments with fertilizers. Issue 12. Methodological approaches in the development parameters of potash regime of arable soils]. Ed. Acad. RAAS V.G. Sychev. Moscow, 2011. 40 p.
8. Pegova N.A., Kholzakov V.M. Vliyanie solomy i sistemy zyablevoy obrabotki pochvy na ee plodorodie i produktivnost' sevooborota. [Influence of straw and system of winter soil tillage on its fertility and productivity of crop rotation]. Nauchnoe obespechenie strategii adaptivnoy intensifikatsii APK na Severo-Vostoke Nechernozemnoy zony Rossiyskoy Federatsii: mater. nauch.-prakt. konf. Ruem, 28-29 iyunya 2007 g. [Scientific support of the strategy of adaptive intensification of agribusiness in the North-East Non-chernozem zone of the Russian Federation: Proceedings of the conference. Ruem, the 28-29th of June, 2007]. Ruem, 2007. pp. 59-64.