The consumption of moisture at cultivation of winter wheat on different predecessors in the southern zone of the Rostov regionой зоне Ростовской области
Alabushev A.V., corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, head of department,
Yankowskiy N.G., DSc in agriculture, leading researcher,
Ovsyannikova G.V., PhD in agriculture, leading researcher,
Popov A.S., PhD in agriculture, head of laboratory,
Sukharev A.A., PhD in agriculture, senior researcher
I.G. Kalinenko All-Russian Research Institute of Grain Crops, Zernograd, Russia
The article presents the results of a study of soil water regime and use of soil moisture by winter wheat at the cultivation on such predecessors as black fallow and maize for silage in the southern zone of the Rostov region. The main source of winter wheat water supply is precipitation; therefore an analysis of meteorological conditions for 2004-2013 was carried out. Water regime of plants of winter wheat during years of research developed under the influence of different moisture supply. During the growing season (September-June) the demand of wheat in water provided with precipitation for 82%. The amount of precipitation satisfies the 100% needs in water only three years out of ten. The coefficient of moisture supply of winter wheat plants in different years varied on black fallow predecessor from a 0.67 to 1.41 units and on corn for silage predecessor from a 0.56 to 1.28. Best conditions of moisture supply on the predecessor black fallow promote to obtaining high grain yields – 4.79…7.00 t/ha depending on the year of studies. Grain yield of winter wheat on the corn predecessor did not exceed a 4.24…5.31 t/ha which is associated with a lower supply of plants in this variant. Gross consumption of moisture by plants of a winter wheat on black fallow predecessor averaged 419 mm that is 62 mm higher than on corn for silage predecessor. The total consumption of water per unit of crop (774 m3/t) for the black fallow predecessor was 15% lower than for the corn for silage predecessor (909 m3/t). The proportion of precipitation in the total water consumption of winter wheat ranged from 70 to 87%: of soil moisture from 30% to 13% respectively depending on the previous crop.
Keywords: precipitation, water demand, winter wheat, moisture supply, predecessor, yield, consumption of moisture
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