Pasture prophylaxis of fasciolosis: plant molluscicide from calamus (Acorus calamus)
Scientific and Research Veterinary Institute of the Non-Chernozem Zone of the Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
High prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock (50…80%) and wild (67.4%) animals enlarges area of Fasciola hepatica infestation resulting in increasing of real hazard of high risk and complicating the epizootic situation in terms of this antropozoohelminthosis in the Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation. The parasite develops some drug resistance mechanisms in all stages of its life cycle. The life cycle enables trematodes to withstand anomal changes in weather conditions and to activize the epizootic process during 3 years. Significant reduction in the number of intermediate hosts of common liver fluke lowers the possibility of contamination of animals resulting in reduction of the threshold of server economic losses. One of the most affordable molluscicides for breaking the biological life cycle of liver flukes is cupper sulphate. In spite of high molluscicidal activity cupper sulphate has some disadvantages limiting the extent of its use. Cupper sulphate is highly toxic against grazing animals, fishes, amphibians, aquatic organisms and vegetable; has cumulative properties and remains active in pasture ponds for 19…25 months. The main goal of the research was to study molluscicidal activity of calamus (Acorus calamus) against inhabitants of pasture ecosystems - freshwater snails of family Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae acting as intermediate hosts of trematodes of animals, fishes and birds. The research was carried out in the aquariology laboratory of the institute and at farms of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The preparation Limazid-A was prepared from calamus according to the pharmacopoeial method. The molluscicidal, toxic and cumulative properties of Limazid-A were studied. Results give evidence on the activity of Limazid-A against snails L. truncatula, L. subangulata and L. goupili acting as intermediate hosts of common liver flukes on the pastures of the Non-Chernozem region. The activity of the preparation from calamus in the form of powder was 94…96%, and in the form of extract – 95…100%. The activity of Limazid-A against clutches of pond snails was 86…98%. It was found that the use of molluscicides with such activity level provides reducing Fasciola hepatica infestation of first year grazing animals by 10…14 times.
Keywords: trematodosis, prophylaxis, snails, plants, molluscicide, disinvasion, pasture, ponds
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