The results of studying of winter wheat cultivars under the conditions of the Nizhniy Novgorod region
Petrov L.K., PhD in agriculture, senior researcher,
Selekhov V.V., PhD in agriculture, senior researcher
Nizhny Novgorod Agricultural Research Institute, s. Selekciya, Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia
A collection of winter wheat cultivars of different eco-geographical origin has been grown and tested on the silty loams of Nizhny Novgorod region and the results are reported in the given article. Ten cultivars were tested for selection of ones combining high potential resistance to the environmental factors (including diseases) of the region with high grain quality and the complex of economically valuable characteristics. The yield of the cultivars was found varying from 3.65 t/ha (Galina variety) to 5.32 t/ha (Nemchinovskaya 57 variety). The yields of varieties Nemchinovskaya 17 and Nemchinovskaya 57 significantly exceeded yield of the standard variety Moskovskaya 39 (by 0.98 and 1.07 t/ha or by 23 and 25%). The elements of the yield structure such as the number of grains per ear, the weight of grains in an ear were proved to differ statistically between the studied varieties. Varieties Nemchinovskaya 24 and Nemchinovskaya 57 had got most grain numbered ears (36.7 and 36.8 grains per ear); Nemchinovskaya 57 and Moskovskaya 56 were characterized with the highest grain weight per ear (1.81; 1.5 g). The protein content ranged from 15.1% at variety Pamyat' Fedina up to 19.2% at variety Moskovskaya 40 with the standard level 17.5%. Variety Moskovskaya 40 was distinguished by the essentially high gluten content that made 36.1%. The biological yield calculation showed high potential of the studied varieties – up to 9.47 t/ha at Nemchinovskaya 57 that is 2.12 t/ha or 29% higher than standard. Varieties Nemchinovskaya 57, Nemchinovskaya 17, Moskovskaya 56, and Moskovskaya 40 have been noticed on the complex of economically valuable characteristics.
Keywords: winter wheat, varieties, grain, productivity, yield structure, grain quality, diseases
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