The effectiveness of technologies of winter wheat cultivation at different levels of intensification
Sabitov M.M., PhD in agriculture, head of department
Ul'yanovsk Agricultural Research Institute, Ul'yanovsk, Russia
Technology of winter wheat cultivation after clean fallow with use of domestic agricultural machinery and regionalized varieties of local breeding were studied. Extensive technology focused on the use of the natural background of soil fertility, including tillage without application of fertilizers and plant protection products. Normal technology includes soil tillage with application of starter doses of fertilizer and minimal use of plant protection from weeds and diseases. The intensive technology is designed for obtaining the planned yield with high grain quality and integrated system of plant protection, using domestic technological means. The technologies used for winter wheat supply a favorable water-air and nutrient regimes of the soil and optimum blend of fertilizers and plant protection products with various methods of primary tillage. Therefore, the actual level of intensification of agricultural technologies on farms can be selected depending on production and resource potential of the producers. The highest yield of winter wheat is noted at the system of ploughing on option with programmable system of fertilizers and integrated plant protection 3.11 t/hectares, yield of grain on this option amounted to 0.35 t/ha. Assessment of economic efficiency of application of mineral fertilizers and plant protection products has shown that the cost of winter wheat increased by 9.5-12.9% in comparison with the control variants. The cost of labour for primary tillage decreased by 2.6-6.1%, and on means of protection and fertilizers on options increased by 7.1-25.0%. The highest net income from 1 hectare and higher profitability provided options for differentially-minimized tillage without plant protection products, using the supporting system of fertilizers.
Keywords: tillage, agrotechnology, addition of soil, moisture stock, biological activity, infestation, yield, efficiency
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