Minimization of tillage for row crops and their productivity
Alabushev A.V., DSc in agriculture, professor, academician of RAS , head of the department,
Sukharev A.A., PhD in agriculture, senior researcher,
Popov A.S., PhD in agriculture, head of the laboratory,
Kambulov S.I., DSc in engineering, head of the department,
Yankovsky N.G., DSc in agriculture, researcher,
Ovsyannikova G.V., PhD in agriculture, leading researcher
All-Russian Research institute of Grain Crops after I.G. Kalinenko, Zernograd, Rostov region, Russia
The experiments were carried out in the southern part of the Rostov region in 2007-2015 on usual heavy loam chernozem. Three methods were used: moulded ploughing on 20-25 cm with plow PN-5-35; unmoulded ploughing on 20-25 cm with unit KAO-2; surface ploughing on 8-12 cm with disker AG-2.4. It was revealed that a long-term surface tillage resulted in the increase of soil density. At the beginning of the crop rotation the soil density was 1.21 g/cm3 in the layer of 10-20 cm and
20-30 cm after surface tillage, but it was 1.07 and 1.14 g/cm3 respectively after plowing. To the end of the crop rotation the soil density was 1.11-1.09 g/cm3 after deep tillage and 1.31-1.32 g/cm3 in the layer of 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm after surface tillage. Height of sunflower plants was 1.35 m and diameter of a sunflower head was 128 mm after surface tillage; sunflower plant height was 1.39 m and diameter of a sunflower head was 149 mm after deep tillage (moldboard plowing). Height of maize plants was 2.15 m after moldboard plowing and 2.00 m after surface tillage. The productivity of sunflower was 1.64 t/ha after surface tillage and 1.88 t/ha after moldboard plowing. The productivity of maize after moldboard plowing was 5.35 t/ha on average in 2014-2015 and was only 4.06 after surface tillage that was on 1.29 t/ha less. The maximum average profitability of sunflower production was 148.9% after moldboard plowing that surpasses this index on 32.8% at a long-term surface tillage. The profitability of maize production was 175.1% after moldboard plowing and only 117.3% after surface tillage.
Keywords: tillage, soil density, sunflower, maize, productivity, economic efficiency
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