Multifunctional role of meadows forage production
Kutuzova A.A., DSc in agriculture, professor, chief researcher,
Privalova K.N., DSc in agriculture, leading researcher,
Teberdiev D.M., DSc in agriculture, head of the grassland department
All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of forages after V.R.Williams, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia
The article presents the summarized results of long-time research, the implementation of which will improve the efficiency of meadow fodder production. On the basis of a new methodological approach the scientific substantiation of production and environment-forming role of grazing and mowing agrophytocenosis today was given. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of human-induced costs by the use of biological function factor was shown: longevity perennial grasses, energy-saving techniques to increase soil fertility through the sod process, mobilization of nitrogen fixation by symbiotic, physiological energies grazed animals and other reserves. Recommended energy- and resource-grazing and haying technology with many years (over 60 years) duration of use provides production of 6.6-6.9 thousand feed units/ha at reducing anthropogenic nonrenewable costs and capital investments reseeding up to 10 times or more. On the basis of experimental data it was established stable productivity of pasture grasses that are formed on perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot and meadow grass (69 and 62 kg/ha) at productivity (in eated feed) 5.4 thousand feed units/ha, cost - 405 rubles / 100 food units. The results of long-time (23 years) research on intensity (3 mowings per season) using of cereal grass stands is presented. Recommended technology provides high (up to 6.8 thousand food nitsu) productivity and production of high quality herbal raw materials containing 0.80 feed units per 1 kg of dry matter. The concrete indicators for environment-forming role of meadow agroecosystems with long-time use of phytocenoses (60 years) on formation of underground mass and change in soil fertility. Structure of the evaluation methodology of estimation of gross energy production with meadow agrosistemy and presents experimental data defining the leading role of factors ensuring high return on man-made energy were presented.
Keywords: meadow fodder production, productivity, soil fertility, agrolandscape, share and gross energy, environment-forming role
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