Preparation of high quality seeds using a pneumatic separator
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Burkov A.I., DSc, professor, head of laboratory,
Batalova G.A., DSc, professor, academician of RAS, deputy director, head of department,
Glushkov A.L., PhD, senior researcher,
Lazukin V.A., associated researcher
North-East Agricultural Research Institute, Kirov, Russia
In preparing of seed material it is important not only to compliance with the requirements of GOST R 52325-2005 for seed quality, content of seeds of other species, impurities, germination, but also the selection adjusted, the most biologically high-grade fractions. The use of airflow is one of the most common and effective ways to clean seeds from impurities. Separation of seeds by airflow allows to allocate the seeds with higher germination ability compared to separation on sieves. In Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "NIISH Severo-Vostoka" the effect of separation seeds of naked oat by airflow on yield quality and crop capacity was studied. Seeds were separated into heavy, medium and light fractions in two passes by the separator SP-4U-P. Grain yield in average in 2008-2010 at sowing seeds of light fraction was lower than control by 0.1-0.2 t/ha. When sowing seeds of heavy and medium fractions grain yield increased compared to control near equal - by 0.2-0.3 t/ha. Thus it is noted good sprouts, and tillering plants three days earlier. In order to reduce the discounted costs of cleaning the seeds pneumatic separator SP-2F was developed which one devides seeds on I-st and II-nd grade, grain forage and waste in a single pass. Evaluation of the quality of work of the separator carried at cleaning of covered oat Sapsan with base values: content of seeds of the main crop 97.04%, crushed grain 0.15%, husked grains 0.18%, small and feeble grain 2.47%, seeds of other species 6 pcs./kg, 1000 seeds weight 41.28 g. After pneumo-separation purity and germination of the I-st grade seeds rose to values met category OS, II grade - up to category РСt with acceptable losses in the waste. Isolation of heavy and medium seed fractions with use of pneumatic separators increases yield quality and crop capacity. Application of pneumatic separator SP-2F allows to get the I and II grade seeds in one pass, and reduce the discounted costs.
Keywords: pneumatic separator, fractionation, seed quality, productivity
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