Molluscicidal properties of the common oak
Gorchakov V.V., PhD in biology, leading researcher,
Kosorlukova Z.Ya., PhD in veterinary, deputy director on scientific work
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Scientific Research Veterinary Institute of Non-Chernozem Zone of the Russian Federation», Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
High morbidity of animals creates a potential risk of further deterioration of epizootic situation on fasciolosis. To devastate mollusks and to break the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica the most affordable molluscicide is bluestone (copper sulphate), which is highly toxic against grazing animals, aquatic organisms and vegetation. The aim of the current study was to investigate molluscicidal activity of the common oak against freshwater mollusks of the family Lymnaeidae as intermediate hosts for trematodes – dangerous for agricultural animals. Researches were conducted in the laboratory and farms of the Nizhny Novgorod region in 2015-2017. A drug was prepared from the common oak and tested for molluscicidal properties in experiments on pastures. Preliminary laboratory studies revealed the harmlessness of this drug. According to the classification of toxic substances by GOST 12.1.007-76 it is classified as a hazard class IV “low-risk substances”. It was established that the oak powder at a dose of 10 g/l caused the death of 8-17% lower crustaceans (Daphnia, Cyclops), 5-10% of benthos (oligochaetes, chironomides), but after 15-17 days their number is restored. The drug did not cause burns in wetland plants and disintegrated within 7-8 days. Field experiments showed that the introduction of the drug into biotopes of mollusks on pastures at a dose of 10.0 g/l during 5 days of exposure caused the death of 100% of mollusks and 94% of their egg clutches. Maximal molluscididal activity of the drug was observed at the water temperature 26.5-28.8°C; lowering the temperature to 15.8-17.4°C resulted in a decrease in its activity. It has been concluded that there is a possibility of using the oak powder as herbal molluscicide for sanitation of pastures and cattle crossings when implementing fasciolosis control programs.
Keywords: fasciolosis, fresh water mollusks, pastures, profilaxy, herbal molluscicides, drug, common oak
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