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Mushrooms as a crop of agricultural production

doi: 10.30766/2072-9081.2018.62.1.04-10.

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V.A. Sysuev, academician of RAS, scientific adviser,
I.G. Shirokikh, Doctor of Biological sciences, Head of the Laboratory,
A.A. Shirokikh, Doctor of Biological sciences, leading researcher
Federal Agricultural Research Center of the North-East named N.V. Rudnitsky,, Kirov, Russia,

Yui Li, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, foreign member of RAS, Director
Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun City, China

The paper reviews current situation in mushroom production as fast developing industry of agriculture. It provides historical information about mushroom species first cultivated in the East (Auricularia spp., Lentinulla edodes, Flammulina velutipes) and in Europe (Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus). The data on the extensiveness of mushroom artificial cultivation and its share in the total volume of world industrial production at present are given. The importance of mushroom products as a new food source under current edible protein deficiency is noted. It is supposed that by 2050 a third of man consumed proteins will be accounted for by the mushroom proteins. The situation of mushroom production in Russia is paid special attention to, as demand for this product here is still exceeds supply. Extensive and intensive ways of artificial cultivation of wood-attacking fungi are compared, the sequence of technological process stages under intensive cultivation of mushrooms is described. The value of edible mushrooms as a source of physiologically active substances for biomedical application is defined. The paper provides the results of evaluation of the prospects of the biotechnological use of some wood-attacking fungi in the cultivation of their mycelium. The activity of glycoproteinoses complex, obtained by hydro extraction from the submersed mycelium of Trametes versicolor fungus as to the correction of white mice immune system is noted. Also recorded is the effectiveness of endopolysaccharide of Тrametes ochracea at low temperature conservation of human blood cells. The aspects of artificial cultivation of mushrooms in connection with the problem of agricultural and forest industry wastes disposal are discussed. The conclusion is made about an urgent need for expansion of international ties for a fuller and wider use of mushrooms as a valuable biological resource.

Keywords: edible mushrooms, mushroom cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal properties, cultivation techniques, waste management

For citation:

Sysuev V.A., Shirokikh I.G., Shirokikh A.A., Yui Li. Mushrooms as a crop of agricultural production. Agrarnay nauka Evro-Severo-Vostoka. 2018. Vol. 62. no. 1. pp. 4-10. doi: 10.30766/2072-9081.2018.62.1.04-10.