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Vectors of vector-borne viral diseases of animals (review)

doi: 10.30766/2072-9081.2018.66.5.04-17.

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O.A. Burova, researcher,  
А.А. Blokhin, PhD in Veterinary sciences, leading researcher,  
O.I. Zakharova, researcher,  
E.A. Liskova, PhD in Veterinary sciences, leading researcher,  
I.V. Yashin, PhD in Biology, leading researcher,  
N.A. Gladkova, PhD in Veterinary sciences, leading researcher  
Nizhny Novgorod Research Veterinary Institution  - Branch Federal Research Center  for Virology and Microbiology,  Nizhny Novgorod City,  Russian Federation, e-mail:

The article  reviews  the data of Russian and  foreign  literature  sources concerning  the  spread of vector-born animal  infectious diseases  such as  lumpy  skin disease  (LSD), Rift Valley  fever  (RVF), bluetongue. Epidemiology, spread of diseases as well as geographical distribution of their vectors are described, the most probable reasons for expanding the areas of vector-borne infections are considered. Insects and ticks serve not only as vectors, but also as reservoirs and amplifying agents of many pathogens of natural focal infections of human and animals. Of great epidemiological importance is the ability of some vectors to transmit vertically the pathogens from infected females to their offspring. An  important  role  in  the  epidemiology of vector-borne  infections belongs  to  the  following bloodsucking  insects  – mosquitoes  (family  Culicidae),  sandflies  (family  Phlebotomidae), midges  (family  Simuliidae), biting midges (family Heleidae), flies (family Muscidae). Spread of lumpy skin disease to the new territories in recent  years  is  associated  with  blood-sucking  ticks  and  flying  biting  insects  of  the  order  Diptera  (Muscidae  – Stomoxys  calcitrans; Culicoides  – C. Punctatus; Anopheles  – An.  stephensi; Culex,  – Cx.  quinquefasciatus). Rift Valley  fever  virus  is  transmitted  through  the  bites  of  infected  mosquitoes  of  the  genera  Aedes,  Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Eretmopodites Eunelanomyia, Mansonia, Neomelaniconion, Ochlerotatus, Stegomyia. A wide range of mosquitoes’  feeders and  the  ability of  some  species  to  feed consistently on birds and mammals allowed these insects to become the most important vectors of many zoonoses. The major vectors of the bluetongue virus are representatives  of  blood-sucking  biting midges  of  the  genus  Culicoides  (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae),  numbering about 1350 species distributed throughout the world (about 117 species in Europe). This article summarizes data on species composition Culicoides in the world and in the Russian Federation and their competence in the transmission
of the bluetongue virus. The major vectors of the bluetongue virus in Africa include representatives of the species C. imicola, in North America – C. sonorensis, in Australia – C. brevitarsis. In Europe the bluetongue virus is transmitted by biting midges from the complex obsoletus and pulicaris.

Keywords: transboundary infections, insects, ticks, viruses, transmission, animals, lumpy skin disease, Rift Valley fever, bluetongue

For citation:

Burova O.A., Blokhin A.A., Zakharova O.I., Liskova E.A., Yashin I.V., Gladkov N.A. Vectors of vector-borne viral diseases of animals (review) // Agrarnayа nauka Evro-Severo-Vostoka. 2018. Vol. 66. no. 5. pp. 4-17. doi: 10.30766/2072-9081.2018.66.5.04-17.