Initial material for breeding of peas under conditions of Volga-Vyatka region
Falenki breeding station, v. Falenki, Kirov region, Russia
At nowadays pea is not occupied areas sufficial to ensure food and feed production as in Volga-Vyatka region and in the country as a whole. The huge role belongs to the variety and its wide dissemination. Basic requirements for variety of pea are stably high productivity, high technology, high grain quality, resistance to disease, pests and adverse edaphic factors. The basis for creating the varieties is the initial material. Collector's gene pool was submitted mainly with foreign varieties (56.9%) from 33 countries, among which prevailed the accessions of Sweden (6.4% of the total number of samples), France (4.8%), Germany and Bulgaria (4.4%) and Ukraine (4.0%). Samples from the Kirov (9.3 %), Orel (8.9%) and and Tyumen (5.2%) regions dominated among domestic samples. Dominant characteristic of varieties of peas is grain yield. As a result of the study of different pea mophotypes and genotypes in the years contrast by the weather conditions the sources with a high level of productivity is selected: Grana, Orel 330, Tigra, G- 21594, D-24746, Aksaisky usatyj, Chishminsky229, Priazovskiy, Severyanin AЗ-99-4Т. The dependence of yield and yield components on environmental conditions is revealed. The level of variability of most of them (number of nodes, number of fruit-bearing beans per plant, number of pods per node, the weight of 1000 grains) increased in years with sufficient moistening (GTK = 1.50, 1.84). The contribution to the formation of pea productivity is revealed for number of seeds (r = 0.50...0.65) and beans (r = 0.54...0.72) per plant, number of fruiting nodes (r = 0.25...0.50), the number of pods per node (r = 0.18...0.53). When studying the disease resistance to dark-spot ascochyta (Ascochyta pinodes L.K. Jones) following varieties are selected: Madonna, Coral, Eguptian dryp; to light-spot ascochyta (Ascochyta pisi Lib.) – varieties Nikolka, Kemchug, Menhir.
Keywords: pea, variety, breeding, productivity, variability, resistance
1. Vasyutin A.S. Sostoyanie i perspektivy proizvodstva zernobobovykh kul'tur v Rossiyskoj Federatsii [The State and prospects of production of leguminous crops in the Russian Federation]. Nauchnye osnovy sozdaniya modeley agroekotipov sortov i zonal'nykh tekhnologiy vozdelyvaniya zernobobovykh i krupyanykh kul'tur dlya razlichnykh regionov Rossii. Orel: Orelisdat., 1997. pp. 23-34.
2. Verbitsky N.M. Selektsiya gorokha v usloviyakh Severnogo Kavkaza [Breeding of pea under conditions of North Caucasus]. Rostov-on-Don: Lugan', 1992. 259 p.
3. Vishnyakova M.A., Buravtseva T.V., Bulyntsev S.V., Burlyaeva M.O., Semenova E.V., Seferova I.V., Aleksandrova T.G., Yan'kov I.I., Egorova G.P., Gerasimova T.V., Drugova E.V. Kollektsiya mirovykh i geneticheskikh resursov zernovykh bobovykh VIR: popolnenie, sokhranenie i izuchenie [Collecion of the world's genetic resources of grain legumes of VIR: replenishment, preservation and study]. Metodicheskie ukazaniya [Methodical instructions]. SPb, 2010. P. 8.
4. Shirokiy unifitsirovannyy klassifikator SEV i mezhdunarodnyy klassifikator SEV roda Pisum L. [Wide unified classifier of SEV and the international classification of SEV of genus Pisum L]. L., 1984. 46 p.