Influence of complex use of fertilizers on fertility and efficiency of the sod-podzolic soil
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In field stationary experiment on the sod-podzolic sandy loam soil the most considerable yield of dry matter per hectare is received at complex use of organic and mineral fertilizers: 5.9-6.6 t of potatoes, 4.0-4.8 t of annual grasses, 4.8-6.1 t of long-term grasses (4.6; 2.5, and 3.3 t on control without fertilizers respectively). Yield of fodder units per hectare was greatest at use of 80 t/hectare and 1 NPK: on potatoes – 6.2 thousand, to annual grasses – 4.2 and to long-term grasses – 5.4 thousand (4.2; 2.1, and 2.5 thousand in control respectively). At complex use of fertilizers the content of starch increased in potatoes tubers (up to 16.2-16.8%, in control – 13.4%); crude protein (up to 15.0-15.6%, in control – 11.4%) and crude fat (up to 4.2-4.4%, in control – 3.5%) in annual grasses; crude protein (up to 14.1-14.4%, in control – 10.2%) and crude fat (up to 4.1-4.3%, in control – 2.6%) in long-term grasses. Complex use of fertilizers raised the content of humus in the soil (by 0.3-0.5%) and the quantity of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, lowered indicators of exchange and hydrolytic acidity of the soil.
The greatest conditionally net income in a fodder crop rotation is gained at complex use of fertilizers (76-96 thousand rub/ha). At the same time, payback of mineral fertilizers at organo-mineral system was 1.3-1.9 times lower (2.57-2.73 rub per 1 rub of expenses), than at mineral system of fertilizers (3.32-4.86 rub per 1 rub of expenses). The similar regularity was observed on profitability of production too.
Keywords: organic and mineral fertilizers, productivity, soil, humus, fodder crop rotation