Priority directions of researches in decision of a problem of multipurpose use of winter rye
North-East Agricultural Research Institute, Kirov, Russia
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A winter rye is the crop most adapted to difficult natural-environmental conditions of Russia. Thus its sowing areas were reduced more than twice for last decade. The special alarm is caused by reduction of the areas under this crop in the Kirov, Nizhniy Novgorod regions, the Perm territory, the Udmurt Republic where low-fertile acid soils prevail. The comparative estimation of expenses (on an example of the Kirov region) has shown that material inputs on manufacture of 1 centner of rye grain is 27 roubles lower than of the spring cereals. Winter rye is a crop of universal use. It has a high potential in strengthening of a forage reserve of the country. Grain of a rye after processing can be used in feeding of animals to 70 % and of poultry to 30 %. The areas extend of sowings of a rye for green forage and in a mix with vetch. Rye grain is excellent raw materials for the starch manufacture which annual import makes more than 140 thousand tons. Possibility of processing of a waste of thrashing of grain mass of a rye in liquid and gaseous fuel is studied. Rye grain has the richest spectrum of the mineral substances necessary for the person. It is rich with selenium, chrome, iodine, iron, group vitamins B and Е, polynonsaturated fat acids Omega-3 and Omega-6 which reduce the raised level of cholesterol and normalize heart work. Rye grain is one of the basic sources of cellulose. The balanced diet with constant inclusion of rye bread promotes preservation of health and prolongation of active longevity.
Keywords: winter rye, processing, fodder and technical use, grain quality, food appointment, health, balanced diet, vitamins