Effect of long-term application of fertilizers on productivity of forage crop-rotations
Mari Agricultural Research Institute, s. Ruem, Republic Mari El, Russia
In 2001-2012 forage crop rotations with a different saturation of perennial legume-cereals grasses with use of recommended for the central zone of Republic Mari El and heightened on 50% doses of fertilizers (NPK) was studied in the Mari ARI experimental field. There was conducted estimate of agricultural land productivity in forage crop rotations and of qualitiy of forage mass produced by cultivated crops. As a result of researches it was established that heightened doses of fertilizers promote to forage crop-rotation productivity on 36.3% in comparison with applying of recommended doses. Applying of N90P90K90 reduced a payback of 1 kg of applying fertilizers by 23-62 % regardless from a crop-rotation type despite increase of value of any productive parameter per а hectare of a crop rotation area. Productivity of crop rotation was higher with three-year applying of clever, lucerne and timothy with heightened fertilizers background than with recommended ones by production of dry matter, fodder unit, crude protein, and exchange energy on 1.6; 0.8; 6.9; and 0.4% respectively. Productivity of arable land located outside of crop rotation where galega-bromegrass mixed was used constantly was 20-30% higher than of crop rotations with 1-, 2- and 3-year applying of legume-cereal grass mix for 12-year observations. Based on received data it was recommended an introduction of short-rotary six-field forage crop rotations with cultivation of perennial legume-cereal herbs (clover + lucerne + timothy) not less than 2 years. Permanent crops with galega and bromegrass are most suitable as high-yielding perennial mowing-pasturable herbage. Fertilizers must be applied in forage crop-rotations for each crop according doses recommend at present time (N60P60K60).
Keywords: legume-cereals grass mix, forage crop-rotation, productivity, fertilizers, galega, bromegrass
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