Aftereffect of green manure and straw in crop rotation
Udmurt State Agricultural Research Institute. Pervomajskij, Udmurt Republic, Russia
Investigations were carried out in the conditions of the Udmurt Republic on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil. The depth of straw placement into the soil in three different chains of crop rotations was studied in 1976…1980; the influence of bio-resources on productivity of crop rotation - in 2001…2008. The purpose of the work is to study the duration of the aftereffect of green manure and straw in different chains and adaptive crop rotations. On low cultivated sod-podzolic soil winter rye's straw ploughed on a depth 14-16 cm at a dose 5.0…5.5 t/ha in combination with mineral fertilizers N120Р120К90 showed aftereffect on winter rye - second crop of chain of crop rotation. At ploughing of straw on a depth 20-22 cm its aftereffect was observed only in years with sufficient availability of moisture. At well cultivated soil the aftereffect of straw reduced per rotation of 8-field crop rotation with twice ploughing of straw in combination with nitrogen (under spring crops – N30 and N60, under winter rye - N60 and N75) on 40-60 kg/ha PK background (depending of crops) but not stopped completely. After completing of full rotation aftereffect of straw ploughing increased productivity of green mass of annual grasses: on the manure background of the first and second doses of nitrogen - by 14.6 to 19.5%; on the background without manure with the second dose of nitrogen - by 23.6%. Aftereffect of straw significantly decreased on third cultures – barley and oats by 0.34 t/ha on light and by 0.20 t/ha on deep cultivation. Decrease of aftereffect of vetch-oats green manure on the background without manure began at 2-year cultivation of clover with a fourth culture; at 1-year use of clover - with the 3rd culture. On the background of manure aftereffect of straw is not revealed. Lowering of aftereffect of clover green manure fallow for the crop rotation till full cessation in the last culture – the oats is marked on both manure and without manure backgrounds.
Keywords: crop rotation, green manure fallow, straw, aftereffect
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