Biologization of cultivation technology of spring wheat on common chernozem in forest-steppe of Zavolzh'e
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, Kirov, Russia
Deficit and high costs of nonrenewable resources demands needs to design and introducing of biologized technologies of crop cultivation. In our 1993…1996 experiments on fields of Samara GSKhA (central zone of Samara region, south forest-steppe of Zavolzh'e) using of basic elements of biologization of technologies of spring wheat cultivation in average increased factor of energy effectiveness by 1.49…2.19 time; increased net income and profitability by 1.02…1.58 and 1.34…5.03 time accordingly. Lowering of costs of nonrenewable energy (by 1.7…3.5…5.11 time) at reducing dozes or full rejection of mineral fertilizers and minimalization of system of basic soil tillering significantly outstrip reducing of spring wheat productivity (by 1.2…1.39 time) that is reason for biologization of technology of its cultivation. Productivity of the crop at cultivation on biologized technologies reduces by 16.7…28% in average. Maximal reducing of productivity was noted at organic system of fertilizers in chain of crop rotation with green manure fallow – by 19.4…42.9% in compare with input of mineral fertilizers. Reasons of reducing of productivity at biologized technologies are increasing of soil phytotoxicity, distribution of perennial weeds, allelopathy, immobilization of available nitrogen, and increase in water consumption in soil. Thus at ploughing of crushed straw in chain of crop rotation with green manure fallow number and mass of perennial weeds increased by 2…5 time in compare with other variants; but factor of water consumption reached maximal values (17.1…17.3 mm per center of main production of crop).
Keywords: agro-ecological parameters, nonrenewable energy, biologization of cultivation technology, soil phytotoxicity, nitrogen immobilization, soil mezofauna
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