Influence of systems of processing of light grey wood soil on productivity of potato in the conditions of Nizhniy Novgorod region
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
At adaptation of the Dutch technology of potato cultivation to local soil-climatic conditions necessity is revealed of carrying out of chizel cultivations as additional pre-sowing processing of light grey wood soil in the spring. The Dutch technology of potato cultivation excludes any additional processing of soil in the spring, except milling by a vertical mill. Comparative studying of three variants of systems of soil processing is spent in Open Company "STAK" of the Nizhniy Novgorod region on potato varieties Udacha, Red Scarlett, Kolette. Use of autumn plowings by a turnaround plough in system of soil processing in comparison with spring ploughong has led to significant increasing of biological activity of soil under potato varieties Kolette and Red Scarlett in 2012-2013. At use of spring ploughing in system of soil processing distinctions on degree of decomposition of a linen cloth under various varieties of potato are noted; significant decrease in biological activity of soil was observed in sowings of potato Kolette. An essential difference on density of arable layer, the general weed contamination of potato sowings between varieties and systems of soil processing in 2012-2014 has not been revealed both in the beginning, and in the end of growth season. Application of autumn basic processing of soil in comparison with spring ploughing has led to significant increasing of productivity of potato on 7.0…8.3 t/ha on the average for three years. Additional use of chizel a cultivator in system of pre-sowing processing of soil has increased productivity of potato on 1.0…3.7 t/ha on the average for three years. Variety Red Scarlett in 2012 has provided the maximum productivity (67.4 t/ha) in a variant with autumn ploughing by a turnaround plough, spring chizel cultivation and milling (in a variant with soil processing on the Dutch technology it is received 59.1 t/ha). Potato varieties of foreign breeding Red Scarlett and Kolette were the most fruitful (56.4 and 59.4 t/ha accordingly on the average for 3 years by all variants of processing). Productivity of variety Udacha of Russian breeding is significantly lower (52.1 t/ha) as in variants with use of autumn processing, and on spring ploughing.
Keywords: potato, variety, field experiment, soil biological activity, addition density, weed contamination, productivity, autumn ploughing, spring ploughing, chizel cultivation
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