Quality of forage of the grass pastures and agrochemical properties of soil depending on the fertilizers system
All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute, Lobnya, Russia
In experimental grassland of All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute (Moscow region) within 10 years the authors studied the influence of different fertilizers systems (3 variants of mineral, 2 organic and 6 combined) on the chemical composition and energy potential saturation of pasture forage of grass composition, agrochemical properties of soil, use of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) by both phytomass and agro-ecosystems in total. Influence of fertilizers on the chemical composition of pasture forage is manifested in two ways: direct - change the content of individual organic and mineral elements in herbs and indirect impact on succession processes in phytocenoses, that is, a change in the ratio between species and of economic and botanical herb groups, mainly between cereals, legumes and grasses in mixtures with one hand and between aboveground organs (leaves and stems) on the other hand. Dry matter of grass pastures with the original grass composed with cocksfoot grass, meadow fescue and timothy on the average for 10 years corresponded to zootechnical standards of feeding cows with daily milk yield of more than 30 kg of milk on concentration of protein, including digestible, fiber, fat, nitrogen-free extractive substances, calcium and potassium, energy saturation (1.57-11.07 MJ exchange energy or 0.94-0.99 fodder units). The availability of phosphorus for highly productive dairy cattle in certain periods of the grazing season was insufficient. Under the influence of natural and anthropogenic (in this case - fertilizers) factors for 10 growing seasons significant changes in agrochemical indexes of soil have been. There has been a marked increase in all forms of acidity in comparison with the original parameters of active (pH index) from 5.9 to 4.4 and 4.9 depending on fertilizers system feeding on grasses, exchange - from 0.03 to 0.05-0.19 mg-EQ., hydrolytic from 2.30 to 3.81-5.19 mg-EQ per 100 g of soil with a simultaneous increase in the concentration of aluminum from 1.56 to 3.50-15.48 mg/kg. At the same time for 10 years humus content has increased in the layer of 0-20 cm of soil from 2.28 % in the initial state to 2.56 % or 53.6 to 60.2 t/ha on non-fertilized pastures, up to 2.67-2.89 % or to 62.7-67.9 t/ha when using organic fertilizers, to 2.73-2.80 % or 64.2-65.8 t/ha and to 2.75-3.0 % or 64.6-70.7 t/ha with a combined system. Significant improvement of total nitrogen content in the soil is noted. All fertilizers systems had considerably increased the use of solar energy as by phytomass and agro-ecosystems in total.
Keywords: grass pastures, fertilizers system, fodder quality, agrochemical indicators, soil, grass stand
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