Effects of oil pollution on microbial communities peat soil middle Preduralie
Lednev A.V., doctor of agricultural sciences, deputy director,
Udmurt Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Pervomaysk, Udmurtia
Skvortsova I.A., a post graduate student,
Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Udmurtia, Izhevsk
The oil industry is one of the most environmentally potentially dangerous sectors of the economy, as at all stages of the oil periodically arise emergency situations in which pollution occurs environment. The aim of our research - to study the effect of oil pollution on the number of microorganisms in peat soils of the Udmurt Republic, typifies the conditions of the Middle Urals. Research carried out in microfield experience. Soil - drained alluvial silt-humus-peat moderately. In an experiment to study the effect of different petroleum contamination levels (from 0 to 300 g / kg of peat) to change the size of the main groups of microorganisms: actinomycetes, microscopic fungi, bacteria ammonifitsiruyuischh and cellulose. It was found that the weak degree of oil pollution (5-20 g / kg of peat) stimulated the development of all investigated groups of microorganisms. A further increase in the level of pollution led to a decrease in their numbers. The most noticeable reduction of the indicator organisms for all groups was observed when the level of oil pollution peat of 50 g / kg. The most susceptible to pollutants studied were ammonifiers and cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the number of which oil at a dose of 50 g / kg, even after 15 months from the start of the experiment was not restored to their numbers in the control variant. The most stable proved to be a complex microscopic fungi, which number over 15 months of the experiment was restored (or exceed) to their numbers in control at all studied levels of pollution. Thus, the microbial community of peat soils of the Middle Urals has a sufficiently high potential for self-healing with oil concentration of less than 50 g / kg of peat. Higher levels of contamination require remediation activities. In developing the activities for reclamation of peat soils it should focus on the size and activity of microbial bacteria, in particular ammonifiers and cellulose.
Keywords: oil pollution, peat soils, microorganisms, actinomycetes, microscopic fungi, bacteria ammonifiers, cellulose-decomposing bacteria
1. Bulatov A.I., Makarenko P.P., Shemetov V.Yu. Okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti. [Environmental protection in the oil and gas industry]. Moscow: Nedra, 1997. 483 p.
2. Vershinin A.A., Petrov A.M., Akaykin D.V., Ignat'ev Yu.A. Otsenka biologicheskoy aktivnosti dernovo-podzolistykh pochv raznogo granulometricheskogo sostava v usloviyakh neftyanogo zagryazneniya. [Estimation of biological activity of sod-podzolic soils of different particle size in terms of oil pollution]. Pochvovedenie. 2014. no. 2. pp. 250-256.
3. Zvyagintsev D.G. Pochva i mikroorganizmy. [Soil and microorganisms]. Moscow: Izd.-vo MGU, 1987. 256 p.
4. Lednev A.V. Izmenenie svoystv pochv Srednego Predural'ya pod deystviem produktov neftedobychi i priemy ikh rekul'tivatsii. [Changing the properties of the Middle Urals soil under the influence of oil products and methods of remediation]. Izhevsk: FGOU VPO Izhevskaya GSKhA. 2008. 174 p.
5. Zubaydulin A.A., Fakhrutdinov A.I. Mikrobiologicheskaya i fermentativnaya otsenka neftezagryaznennykh uchastkov biotsenozov Nizhnevartovskogo rayona. [Microbiological and enzymatic evaluation of oil-contaminated sites of biocenoses in Nizhnevartovsk District]. Nauka i obrazovanie XXI veka: Sbornik tezisov dokladov Vtoroy okruzhnoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh KhMAO. [Science and Education of the XXI century: Abstracts of the second district conference mo-KhMAO young scientists]. Sh. 1. Surgut: Izd-vo SurGU, 2001. pp. 17-20.
6. Myazin V.A. Razrabotka sposobov povysheniya effektivnosti bioremediatsii pochv Kol'skogo Severa pri zagryaznenii nefteproduktami (v usloviyakh model'nogo eksperimenta): Dis ... kand. biol. nauk. [Development of ways to increase the effectiveness of bioremediation of soils Kola Peninsula with oil contamination (in terms of the model ex-periment): PhD Thesis]. Petrozavodsk, 2014. 159 p.
7. Khabibullina F.M., Ibatullina I.Z. Transformatsiya soobshchestva mikromitsetov v torfyano-gleevykh pochvakh Kraynego Severa pri neftyanom zagryaznenii. [Transformation of micromycetes community in the peat-gley soils of the Far North at the Oil Pollution]. Teoreticheskaya i prikladnaya ekologiya. 2011. no. 3. pp. 76-86.
8. GOST R54653-2011 Udobrenya organicheskie. Metody mikrobiologicheskogo analiza. [State Stan-dard R54653-2011. Organic fertilizers. microbiological analysis methods]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2012. 24 p.
9. PND F 16.1:2.2.22-98. Kolichestvennyy khimicheskiy analiz pochv. Metodika vypolneniya izmereniy massovoy doli nefteproduktov v mineral'nykh, organogennykh, organomineral'nykh pochvakh i donnykh otlozheniyakh metodom IK-spektrometrii. [PND F 16.1:2.2.22-98. Quantitative chemical analysis of soils. Methods of measurement of the mass fraction of oil in the mineral, organogenic, organo-mineral soils and sediments by IR spectrometry]. Utverzhdena 10 noyabrya 1998 g.
10. Lednev A.V. Razrabotka tekhnologii polu-cheniya sorbenta iz mestnogo syr'ya dlya ochistki vodnykh ob"ektov i pochvy. [Development of technology for the sorbent from local raw materials for the purification of water objects and soil]. Izhevsk: IzhGSKhA, 1999. 23 p.
11. Burghal A.A., Mahdi K.H., Al-Mudaffar N.A. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes strains oil refinery contaminated soil, Basrah-Iraq. International Jornal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology. 2015. V. 2. pp. 20-27.
12. Mobaiyen H., Sedegbayan K., Dehnad A., Naseri A-H., Ahmad por F., Shahla N.M. Studi on liquid paraffin decomposer microorganisms isolated from soils of Julfa-Iran. African Jornal of Microbiology Research. 2013. V. 7(1). pp. 260-265.
13. Al-Jawhari I.F.H. Ability of Some Soil Fungi in Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon. Jornal of Applid & Environmental Microbiology. 2014. V. 2 no. 2. pp. 46-52.
14. Poluektov R.A. Opisanie protsessa ammonifikatsii v ramkakh modeli transformatsii ugleroda i azota v pochve. [Description of ammonification process in the framework of the model of transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the soil]. Problemy agrokhimii i ekologii. 2011. no. 4. pp. 25-28.
15. Kirienko O.A., Imranova E.L. Vliyanie zagryazneniya pochvy nefteproduktami na sostav mikrobnogo soobshchestva. [Influence of oil pollution on soil microbial community structure]. Vestnik TOGU. 2015. no. 3(38). pp. 79-86.