Influence of precursors and methods of basic processing on productivity of grain-bearing crops on drainage lands
Mitrofanov Y.I., PhD in agriculture, head of department,
Gulyaev M.V., PhD in agriculture, senior researcher,
Kuharina V.N., senior researcher,
Lukyanov S.A., associated researcher
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution All-Russian Research Institute of Reclaimed Lands (FGBNU VNIIMZ), Tver, Russia
The results of research (2003...2005) on the influence of predecessors (potato, winter rye, barley, flax) and basic tillage methods (deep-fall plowing and disking) on water-and-physical properties and biological activity of soil, weed infestation, productivity of legume crops on drained sod-podzolic soil in the conditions of the Vologda region. When plowing with cut-out dumps for 30-32 cm the bulk mass in the 20-30 cm layer decreased by 0.03-0.15 g/cm3, and the water permeability of the soil increased by 0.24 m/day. The shallow processing of the soil to a depth of 8-12 cm (disking) leds to increase in differentiation of the arable layer - it increased the bulk density in the layer 10-20 by 0.04-0.05 g/cm3. Filtering coefficient after disking decreased by 0.20 m /day. It is established that the best predecessor of barley and oats with the application of fertilizers and the usual system of tillage (plowing at 20-22 cm) is potato. In barley addition yield compared to other predecessors made 0.27-0.39 t/ha. Among combinations of precursors with soil cultivation methods plowing with cut-out dumps after winter rye was a reliable addition of barley yield (0.31 t/ha). In the variant with repeated sowing of barley plowing with cut-out dumps reduced barley yield by 0.29 t/ha or 8.5 %. Treating the soil with discs reduced the yield of oats when placed in crop rotation after flax and barley. In all other cases, the replacement of plowing on 20-22 cm with disking on 8-12 cm does not reduce the yield of barley and oats. Replacement of plowing on 20-22 cm by small processing on 8-12 cm allows to reduce expenses for main processing by 47.1%, including expenses on fuel for 7.8 l/ha or 45.3%, labor for 0.4 person hours per ha or 33.9%.
Keywords: drainage soil, predecessor, deep processing, disking, bulk mass, biological activity, weediness, productivity
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