Drought resistance of European hazel under conditions of Kirov region
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North-East Agricultural Research Institute, Kirov, Russia
The purpose of researches was studying of influence of amount of precipitations during the growth period on separate components of hazel productivity and revealing of drought-resistant forms of the crop. The amount of precipitation, dropped out in June, July, and August during the period 2007-2013 has been analyzed; it is revealed that droughty periods are noted most often in July, in 57.2 % of years. The studying of connection between amounts of precipitation, dropped out in the given month during the period from 2007 to 2013, and average productivity of hazel's elite forms has shown negative influence of a lack of moisture on productivity of crop. In droughty years the lowest productivity of hazel is noted – 0.8-0.9 kg/bush. For finding-out of the most drought-vulnerable phase of formation of nuts in the conditions of Kirov region calendar terms of passage of separate phenological phases have been specified. Taking this fact into account correlation connections between amounts of precipitation, dropped out in different phases of nut development (from second decade of June till the third decade of August), and separate indicators of hazel productivity (efficiency, large-fruitiness, yield of kernels from a nut) have been analyzed. Significant negative influence of amounts of precipitation, dropped out in the third phase, on yield of kernels from a nut (r = -0.89) is established. Close positive relation (r = -0.72) between amounts of precipitation, dropped out in II phase and hazel productivity is revealed. The estimation of 14 elite forms of hazel on field indicators of drought resistance is spent: water content of leaves and moisture loss for 6 hours (water-retaining ability). On water-retaining ability of leaves all elite forms have been classified as highly resistant (loss of a moisture is less than 30%), but on water content of leaves (60-70%) 13 elite forms have average degree of drought resistance. It specifies in high degree of their fitness to the droughty periods of region. The form 1-6-48 is revealed by low degree of resistance to drought.
Keywords: European hazel, drought resistance, moisture loss, precipitations, productivity, water content of leaves
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