Resource-saving tillage system of sod-podzolic soils
Udmurt Agricultural Research Institute, Pervomajskij, Russia, Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk, Russia
A resource-saving system of basic soil cultivation in crop rotation (green-manure fallow (white mustard) + cattle manure 60 t/ha - winter rye - spring wheat with clover sowing - clover of 1st year of use - winter rye - barley - oats) was developed. Straw of winter rye and winter wheat in the yield volume remains in the field. Recommended system includes plowing of clover grass sod on 17 cm, non-moldboard cultivations at different depths (12 to 20 cm) in a fallow, among other for placement of manure and green manure, non-moldboard cultivations on 20 cm after winter rye, surface tillage on 12 cm after the last crop in rotation, no-tillage under fallow. Implementing the recommended tillage system has provided the productivity of arable land – 2.59 tons of grain units of the basic product per hectare and the energy efficiency ratio – 2.92, which is the level of moldboard system with the same amount of bioresources – 2.70 tons of grain units per hectare, the energy efficiency ratio – 2.93. Labor inputs for basic tillage decreased by 14%, the cost of lubricants – by 25%. The developed system in comparison with the moldboard has increased the efficiency of influence of bio-resources on indicators of soil fertility. At the end of the crop rotation the density texture of arable layer decreased on 0.01 g/cm3. The content of water-stable aggregates of 0.25-3.0 mm increased from 56.5% to 61.0%, the carbon content of active humus acids increased by 12.1%. Under the clover sowing the density texture of arable layer decreased on 0.04 g/cm3, the nitrate content increased by 70 %. When using herbicides dockage of crops at recommended tillage systems was higher than with moldboard, but did not exceed the threshold of economic practicality of weed control.
Keywords: tillage, biological resources, straw, green manure, manure, indicators of fertility, productivity, impurity, resource saving, energy efficiency
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